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Hydrogen Decrepitation is a process step used in the production of Neodymium magnets to create extremely small grains in the material. Neodymium magnets must have very …The HD-process converts the magnets possible to recover the hard magnetic powder from a to a powder due to the expansion of the material on particular device (e.g. hard disk drive or electric motor) hydrogen absorption. Recycling of NdFeB magnets by by simply exposing the complete system to a hydrogen this means has been proposed by Rivoirard ...(DOI: 10.1016/S0925-8388(99)00443-0) The corrosion and degradation of Nd–Fe–B magnets by hydrogen from moisture in the environment has been termed the Negative Harris Effect. In order to provide more information on this phenomenon, different density Nd–Fe–B magnets have been subjected to vacuum desorption, XRD and …The scrap sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets were recycled as the raw materials for bonded magnets using the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. The HD powders have the lowest oxygen and hydrogen content by hydrogenation at 150 °C with 1 bar H2 pressure and dehydrogenation at 600 °C. The powders with the largest particle size (>380 μm) …A study of the processing and characterisation of sintered NdFeB magnets made from recycled feed stock was undertaken. Initially the hydrogen decrepitated (HD) powder was investigated using two different milling techniques ball milling and burr milling. The powders were analysed with optical microscopy, with the aid of a magnetic field.2.1. Introduction of this section. HDDR treatment is used to obtain Nd-Fe-B magnet powders with good magnetic anisotropy and high coercivity [6,8,19].Therefore, HDDR treatment has been used to produce anisotropic bonded magnets for high-performance motors in automobiles and electronic devices [20,21].In typical HDDR …We report investigations on the processing by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of RE2Fe14B (RE = Nd, Pr…) powders obtained by hydrogen decrepitation of …0.5% -1%. Dysprosium (Dy) 0.8% -1.2%. The method of manufacture of Neodymium Iron Boron magnets is as follows: The Neodymium metal element is initially separated from refined Rare Earth oxides in an electrolytic furnace. The “Rare Earth” elements are lanthanoids (also called lanthanides) and the term arises from the uncommon oxide …Mar 1, 2016 · The hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process for cast NdFeB alloys [1] has also been shown to be a technically and economically effective method for breaking down scrap sintered NdFeB magnets into a powder [2] and hence, for instance, for the separation of NdFeB-based magnets from end-of-life hard disk drive assemblies [3], [4]. Sagawa obtained ultrafine NdFeB grain by innovative HD (hydrogen-decrepitation) + HDDR (hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination) + helium jet milling process. It should be noted that the helium gas is more suitable than nitrogen gas to fabricate ultrafine powder due to its lighter mass fraction, and will also …Magnetic powders for sintered NdFeB magnets have been prepared by using an advanced processing method including strip casting, hydrogen decrepitation, jet milling and rubber isotropic press. The effects of Dy, Ga and Co addition on the microstructure and magnetic properties of sintered magnets have been investigated. By adopting a suitable …The behavior of hydrogen absorption in the NdFeB Hydrogen Decrepitation process is affected by the shape of the NdFeB alloy, pressure and temperature curves of …Received 21st February 2020, Accepted 5th March 2020. meric portion. The PA-free magnet powder was found to retain >90% of its original magnetic properties. Two epoxy-bonded magnets produced with this recycled magnet powder showed magnetic properties. DOI: 10.1039/d0gc00647e. The hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process for cast NdFeB alloys [1] has also been shown to be a technically and economically effective method for breaking down scrap sintered NdFeB magnets into a powder [2] and hence, for instance, for the separation of NdFeB-based magnets from end-of-life hard disk drive assemblies [3], [4].T D ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT The Use of Hydrogen to Separate and Recycle Neodymium-Iron-Boron-type Magnets from Electronic Waste A. Walton a, Han Yi , N.A. Rowson b, J.D. Speight , V.S.J. Mann a, R.S. Sheridan , A. Bradshaw a, I.R. Harris a, A.J. Williams School of Metallurgy and Materials a and School of Chemical Engineering b, …Hydrogen absorption and desorption characteristics for high coercivity NdDyFeCoNbCuB sintered bulk magnets were studied, by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement and hydrogenation kinetics measurement. The DSC measurements showed that hydrogenation of Nd-rich phase occurred in the temperature range of …A combination of hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and jet milling (JM) has been used to produce powder for the processing of permanent magnets. The procedure has proved to be very successful for both Nd-Fe-B (Neomax) alloys and the ND-Dy-Fe-Nb-B high coercivity alloys. The magnets produced by the HD/JM process showed excellent coercivities when …Nov 14, 2017 · Abstract: Hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is an effective and environmentally friendly technique for recycling of neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets. During the HD process, the NdFeB breaks down into a matrix phase (Nd2Fe14BHx) and RE-rich grain boundary phase. The grain boundary phase in the HD powder is <2 m in size. So exposure at LOW temperature to hydrogen leads the NdFeB pieces to react via intergranular fracturation (decrepitation), the mass of Nd2Fe14B grains forminfg a metal hydride with max ... Jan 1, 2022 · The SC alloy is converted into a fine powder by hydrogen decrepitation and then jet-milling (JM) to produce a fine powder consisting almost entirely of single crystal particles of the Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase. This powder is then filled into fills molds and pressed while a magnetic field is applied to orient the individual particles. The compacted ... Magnetic powders for sintered NdFeB magnets have been prepared by using an advanced processing method including strip casting, hydrogen decrepitation, jet milling and rubber isotropic press. The effects of Dy, Ga and Co addition on the microstructure and magnetic properties of sintered magnets have been investigated. By adopting a suitable …The hydrogen treatment of the Nd‐Fe‐B alloy ingots was found to produce magnet powders with good magnetic properties. Typical magnetic properties of these powders are as follows; 4πIs = 9.5 kG, Br = 7.7 kG, iHc = 9.4 kOe, and (BH)max = 12.2 MGOe. Microstructural studies of these powders showed that they are made of fine …The fabrication of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets is composed of quite a few processes mainly including strip casting, hydrogen decrepitation, jet-milling, magnetic alignment and pressing, sintering and subsequent heat treatment, machining, and surface coating. ... Possible methods of recycling NdFeB-type sintered magnets using the …Michihide Nakamura, Masashi Matsuura, Nobuki Tezuka, Satoshi Sugimoto, Yasuhiro Une, Hirokazu Kubo, Masato Sagawa; Preparation of ultrafine jet-milled powders for Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets using hydrogenation–disproportionation–desorption–recombination and hydrogen …The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Scientific and Technical InformationThe application of hydrogen decrepitation (HD) as a process for recycling Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets was reported in [ 6 ], in which the essential role of hydrogen in the recycling process was demonstrated. The obtained magnetic properties of the recycled magnet were ( BH) max = 290 kJ/m 3 (±5 kJ/m 3 ), Br = 1240 mT (±50 mT) and jHc = …The high- and standard-grade material can be processed using either an HD/HDDR process or a sintering process, both of which are being tested in the course of this project. HD/HDDR stands for hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and hydrogen-disproportionation decomposition-recombination (HDDR). The HD/HDDR pulverised …A combination of hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and jet milling (JM) has been used to produce powder for the processing of permanent magnets. ... The procedure has proved to be very successful for both NdFeB (Neomax) alloys and the NdDyFeNbB high coercivity alloys. The magnets produced by the HD/JM process showed excellent …Rare earth magnets based upon neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) are employed in many high tech applications, including h... Skip to main content. Sign In Create account . Journal Article OPEN ACCESS. THE USE OF THERMAL HYDROGEN DECREPITATION TO RECYCLE Nd-Fe-B MAGNETS FROM ELECTRONIC WASTE. Piotrowicz A; Pietrzyk S; …Jul 15, 2015 · The obtained strips were pulverized and further milled into ∼5 μm powder using hydrogen decrepitation and jet milling, respectively. These powders were pressed in a magnetic field of 1.8 T under a pressure of 8.0 MPa. Afterward, the green compacts were sintered at 1070°C for 3 h in vacuum, cooled by Ar quenching. T D ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT The Use of Hydrogen to Separate and Recycle Neodymium-Iron-Boron-type Magnets from Electronic Waste A. Walton a, Han Yi , N.A. Rowson b, J.D. Speight , V.S.J. Mann a, R.S. Sheridan , A. Bradshaw a, I.R. Harris a, A.J. Williams School of Metallurgy and Materials a and School of Chemical Engineering b, …We report investigations on the processing by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of RE2Fe14B (RE = Nd, Pr…) powders obtained by hydrogen decrepitation of …The reaction speed in the typical hydrogenation run (Fig. 1b, 1d) is limited only by the rate of the gas diffusion into the sample.When the reaction proceeds in deficiency of hydrogen (Fig. 1b) only a part of the Nd transforms into neodymium hydride NdH y as it follows from the diffraction pattern displayed in Fig. 2d.That pattern includes …In this paper, the hydrogen processing of scrap magnets has been demonstrated as an extraction method for NdFeB from automotive rotors for the first time, with the aim to …A Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process (HD-PLP) recycling method for recycling of anisotropic NdFeB magnets is demonstrated. The method combines hydrogen decrepitation (HD) disintegration of the initial magnet, powder sieving and the Press-Less Process (PLP), where hydride powder is sintered in a graphite mold. A study of the processing and characterisation of sintered NdFeB magnets made from recycled feed stock was undertaken. Initially the hydrogen decrepitated (HD) powder was investigated using two different milling techniques ball milling and burr milling. The powders were analysed with optical microscopy, with the aid of a magnetic field.The behavior of hydrogen absorption in the NdFeB Hydrogen Decrepitation process is affected by the shape of the NdFeB alloy, pressure and temperature curves of …Rare earth magnets based upon neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) are employed in many high tech applications, including h... Skip to main content. Sign In Create account . Journal Article OPEN ACCESS. THE USE OF THERMAL HYDROGEN DECREPITATION TO RECYCLE Nd-Fe-B MAGNETS FROM ELECTRONIC WASTE. Piotrowicz A; Pietrzyk S; …So exposure at LOW temperature to hydrogen leads the NdFeB pieces to react via intergranular fracturation (decrepitation), the mass of Nd2Fe14B grains forminfg a metal hydride with max ... Received 21st February 2020, Accepted 5th March 2020. meric portion. The PA-free magnet powder was found to retain >90% of its original magnetic properties. Two epoxy-bonded magnets produced with this recycled magnet powder showed magnetic properties. DOI: 10.1039/d0gc00647e. The treatment starts with a hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process to transform the as extracted waste magnets into an almost fully demagnetized powder for an easy separation of the magnetic fraction from the rest of the materials (corrosion protection layers or, depending on the device, the assembly where the magnet was fixed into) [6]. …Various efforts have been made in the past for direct recycling of spent NdFeB magnet using hydrogen decrepitation followed by resintering method (Zakotnik et al., 2009; Herraiz et al., 2016). In ...The Hydrogen Decrepitation and the Hydrogen Disproportionation Desorption Recombination processes for the preparation and the recycling of the two industrially produced phases of SmCo alloys, SmCo5 and Sm2Co17, are reviewed. The effects of the chemical composition, the microstructure, the exposure time, the hydrogen …Rare earth magnets based upon neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) are employed in many high tech applications, including h... Skip to main content. Sign In Create account . Journal Article OPEN ACCESS. THE USE OF THERMAL HYDROGEN DECREPITATION TO RECYCLE Nd-Fe-B MAGNETS FROM ELECTRONIC WASTE. Piotrowicz A; Pietrzyk S; …1. Introduction. The hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process for cast NdFeB alloys [1] has also been shown to be a technically and economically effective method for breaking down scrap sintered NdFeB magnets into a powder [2] and hence, for instance, for the separation of NdFeB-based magnets from end-of-life hard disk drive assemblies [3], …magnets. The thermal and mechanical impact of the hydrogen decrepitation process was assessed during hydrogen processing. For all forms of sintered NdFeB scrap the surface condition of the magnets is important as oxidation has been shown to inhibit the onset of the hydrogen decrepitation process. In thisThis paper studied the corrosion behavior of c ∥ and c ⊥ surfaces in sintered (Ce 0.15 Nd 0.85) 30 Fe bal B magnets. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The distribution of RE-rich phase is improved after Ce substitution compared with the sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets, and the value of A0 / A1 is approximate for both c ∥ and c ⊥ surfaces.Hydrogen is already used to process cast NdFeB in the Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) process. The HD process is used extensively to reduce bulk (or strip) cast NdFeB ingots to friable, hydrogenated NdFeB granules/powder, prior to the production of jet milled powder which is then aligned, compressed and sintered to form fully dense …Hydrogen decrepitation as a highly efficient and excellent crushing method is widely used in the preparation of NdFeB magnets. ... Expand. 1. Save. The processing and characterisation of recycled NdFeB based magnets. S. Adrwish. Materials Science, Engineering. 2013; The scrap magnets were turned into a powder using the HD process. …Novel hydrogen decrepitation behaviors of (La, Ce)-Fe-B strips. Jiaying Jin G. Bai +4 authors M. Yan. ... Doping with Dy/Tb is a current solution to improve the coercivity and the operating temperature of NdFeB magnets, by increasing the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the (Nd, Dy/Tb)2Fe14B (2:14:1) …Sprecher, et al. [8] compared the environmental impact of producing virgin NdFeB magnets to producing recycled NdFeB magnets from waste computer hard disk drives (HDDs) using hydrogen decrepitation. The results showed that recycling in general was more favorable to the environment, and this was especially true for manual …Jan 1, 1991 · The subject of this paper is method (4) together with other aspects of the use of hydrogen in the processing of NdFeB-type magnets. 2. The hydrogen decrepitation process The manufacture of rare earth-transition metal magnets by the HD route was first proposed in a 1978 patent by Harris et al. [7]. Permanent magnets produce magnetic fields and maintain the field even in the presence of an opposing magnetic field. They are widely used in electric machines, electronics, and medical devices. Part I reviews the conventional manufacturing processes for commercial magnets, including Nd-Fe-B, Sm-Co, alnico, and ferrite in cast and …The behavior of hydrogen absorption in the NdFeB Hydrogen Decrepitation process is affected by the shape of the NdFeB alloy, pressure and temperature curves of …The scrap sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets were recycled as the raw materials for bonded magnets using the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. The HD powders have the lowest oxygen and hydrogen content by hydrogenation at 150 °C with 1 bar H2 pressure and dehydrogenation at 600 °C. The powders with the largest particle size (>380 μm) …May 1, 2023 · The hydrogen absorbed by the whole alloy and, in particular, by the Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase decreases with temperature. Below 150 °C, the hydrogen absorbed by the Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase produces a significant transgranular cracking that is undesirable for particle shape. At 300 °C, the fast and limited absorption of hydrogen by the Nd-rich phase ... The method combines hydrogen decrepitation (HD) disintegration of the initial magnet, powder sieving and the Press-Less Process (PLP), where hydride powder is sintered in a …During the hydrogenation process, a volume expansion takes place, which promotes the formation of transgranular and intergranular cracks, causing the breakup of the material [29].Fig. 1 shows the different types of fracture that can occur during the hydrogen decrepitation process. The hydrogenation of the grain boundary phase can lead to an …Anisotropic powder was prepared with precursor (NdDy)-(FeCoNbCu)-B sintered magnets by hydrogen decrepitation, desorption, and subsequent annealing treatment. The hydrogen desorption was performed in magnetic fields of 0, 1, 3, and 5 T. The orientation of tetragonal phase grains of the powder was evaluated from the …Semantic Scholar extracted view of "Possible methods of recycling NdFeB-type sintered magnets using the HD/degassing process" by M. Zakotnik et al. ... The purpose of this thesis was to study the Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) process as a way to recycle waste scraps of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets into highly coercitive and anisotropic …The decrepitation process and related changes in the sample temperature are analysed to explain the experimentally observed weight gain curve of a Nd–Fe–B sample due to hydrogen uptake. It is shown that the expansion of the specific surface resulting from decrepitation of the sample is the most important parameter controlling …Fig. 1. Illustration of the Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process (HD-PLP) recycling of anisotropic sintered NdFeB magnet. Passivated commercial N48M sintered magnets were used as starting material and hydrogen was applied to disintegrate the magnets inside a ball milling container. The hydride powder was both used directly … A Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process (HD-PA combination of hydrogen decrepitation (HD The HD-process converts the magnets possible to recover the hard magnetic powder from a to a powder due to the expansion of the material on particular device (e.g. hard disk drive or electric motor) hydrogen absorption. Recycling of NdFeB magnets by by simply exposing the complete system to a hydrogen this means has been proposed by Rivoirard ... The behavior of hydrogen absorption and rele Oct 1, 2015 · Hydrogen is already used to process cast NdFeB in the Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) process. The HD process is used extensively to reduce bulk (or strip) cast NdFeB ingots to friable, hydrogenated NdFeB granules/powder, prior to the production of jet milled powder which is then aligned, compressed and sintered to form fully dense sintered magnets ... Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) has been used as an efficient ...

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Originated by Professor Rex Harris, the hydrogen decrepitation method, which is used to reduce NdFeB alloys to a powder, i...

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Jun 27, 2014 · The scrap sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets were recycled as the raw materials for bonded magnets using the hydroge...

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Sep 14, 2000 · This way of powdering known as hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is a well-established stage of manuf...

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calcium [12] and hydrogen decrepitation [1,13-19]. Many of these are under current development....

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